What is End User Computing??



Prilia Sulyani

What’s the meaning End User Computing ?

End User Computing is a computer-based information system that directly supports the operational and managerial applications end users where end user work station computing using microcomputers and an assortment of software to get back the information, decision support, and application development.

For example, users can send electronic mail, move the analytical model, building new business applications, or analyze and report data obtained from outside sources.

End User Computing is already widely used by users who have taken the initiative to develop their own applications instead of using the specialist information.

End User Computing can also refer to the concept because of the abstraction in software engineering for the Group of people who will ultimately operate software (i.e. users who expected or target-user) and can be useful in the information is believed to be relevant in a particular project.

Background of End User Computing

If Chief Information Officer (CIO) have an influencer, sources of information company will also undergo changes. During the last few years, the trend of a centralized information service operation has turned into a trend of computerized sources distribution company which in the form of microcomputers.

Most of the distribution used by the use that has no understanding of computers specifically. Applications of users consists of a written piece of software that has been created from the information service unit or obtained from outside sources. But there also are using computer applications to be used and implemented to himself.

Now the company is confronted by the challenge of managing scattered sources, and for user computing will examine the symptoms and find some way that can be done by the company in order to achieve a level of expected.

Who’s users from End User Computing?

The end user of End User Computing can be grouped into 4 sections:

  1. Menu Level End Users
    Menu Level End User i.e. end users are not able to create its own software but can communicate with software ready by using the menu displayed by the software based Windows and Mac.

  2. Command Level End Users
    Command Level End User i.e. the end user has the ability to use the software ready to choose the menu and use the language of commands from the software to carry out the operations of arithmetic and logic on the data in the form of excel and microsoft.

  3. End User Programmer
    End User Programmer i.e. end user can use programming languages such as BASIC or CTRL or C++ and can develop programs according to needs.

  4. Functional Support Personnel
    Functional Support Personnel i.e. a dedicated information specialist on a specific user area and always reports to the Manager of the functional.

When and Where found of End User Computing ?

The first study about the End User was done in 1993 by John Rockart from MIT and Lauren s. Flannery, a student from MIT. End user types found by them when they do interview 200 end user by seven companies and identify it into 6 types, namely:

  1. End User Non-Programming
    This user only has a little computer understanding could be nothing at all. Typically, the user is only using the software that has been created by others. The user communicates with the hardware with the Help menu and rely on others to provide technical assistance.

  2. Command Level User
    This user uses the software which is already available, but the user also uses a 4GL for database access and make special reports
  3. End User Programmer
    This user other than using our software writing and 4GL, user can also write the program yourself and can understand a programming language. Because, the user can have their own understanding about the computer. The user typically generate information for the use of non-programming and the level of command. An example of this level of user i.e. actuary, financial analysis and engineers.

  4. Functional Support Personnel
    This user is assigned in the company's functional units and handle the use of the computer. This user has a degree as a unit like the one in service of information.

  5. End User Computerized Support Personnel
    The user is referred to as information specialists and commissioned in the unit of service of information. But also helps the end user in the development of the system.

  6. DP Programmer
    This user is a programmer specifically assigned to service of information is expected to provide support to the end user. This support is typically provided to determine the contract price.

Most of the End User Computing applications are restricted to:

  1. Decision Support System relatively easy

  2. Virtual Office applications that meet the needs of the individual.

The more is the responsibility of the information specialist to work with users in developing:

  1. Management Information System and Accounting Information System Application

  2. Decicion Support System is complicated

  3. Virtual office application that meet the need of the organization

  4. Knowledge based systems.

Why’s End User Computing ?

  • Goal from End User Computing
    is to allow employees to be skilled in the knowledge of very expert in the field of computers and teaching the end user how to access it. And it could also in critiquing the tasks supported by the computing system.

  • Application of End User Potential
    End User Computing was limited to the application of the DSS and automation of the Office, such as word, electronic mail and others. By understanding an application which may be developed and which could not possibly be developed. Thus, the end user and information specialists will be side by side in the future.

  • Benefits from End User
    1. Move a portion of the workload of the development system to the user,

    2. Reduce the communication gap between users with specialist information,

    3. The creation, control, and implementation by users,

    4. Information systems that meet the needs of users,

    5. Timeliness,

    6. Free up system resources and computerized information,

    7. The flexibility and the convenience of its users
  • Factors that encourage of End User Computing
    1. Improve the knowledge about computers,

    2. The ability of the user more carefully upon their computerization,

    3. Processing costs or time processing,

    4. The technology hardware cheaper,

    5. The technology software ready made.
  • The risk of application of End User Computing
    1. A bad target system,

    2. A bad system design and documentation,

    3. The use of information resources ineffecient,

    4. Loss of data integrity,

    5. The loss of the security.
  • Advantages and weaknesses End User Computing

    • Advantages of End User Computing:
      1. Application that is needed will be resolved more quickly because it is developed by a user of the system,

      2. The needs of the users of the system are more fulfilled because developed themselves,

      3. Add and increase in the active participation in the process of developing the system,

      4. Can add to the quality of the understanding of the user against the application used and the technology in the development of the system.
    • Weaknesses of End User Computing:
      1. Required to have an understanding of information technology,

      2. End User Computing risk that can penetrate even damage the external information system developed by users,

      3. End User Computing will be dealt with the technical capabilities of users at the same time the development of the system.

These benefits can increase the value of the achievement of a computer user skills. And in this case, the user needs support in solving problems and the system is what is needed by the user.

There are some models that are used by the users in the evaluation of system information, including:

  1. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)
    The method was first introduced this TAM by Davis in 1989. TAM is a theory of information systems that make the model of how the user wants to receive and use the technology. This model proposes the user in influencing their decision about how and when to use the system, in particular:
    1. Usefulness (users are confident in using this system can improve its performance), Ease of use (users are confident in using this system there is no hardship or ease in working on it).
      TAM has a strong element of behavior, assume that when someone acts record will be free without restriction. Several studies have proven the Davis study to provide empirical evidence of the relationship that exists between usefulness, ease of use and system use.

    2. End User Computer (EUC) Satisfaction
      This evaluation model developed by Doll and Torkzadeh emphasizes our satisfaction, end user against aspects of the technology, by assessing the content, accuracy, format, timing and ease of the user by the system. This model has been extensively tested by the researchers to test the reability and the results showed no meaningful difference despite being modified in a variety of languages.

    3. Task Technology Fit (TTF) Analysis
      The evaluation model was first developed by Goodhue and Thompson year 1995. This model is the alignment of the capabilities of the technology to the needs of the task in a job that is the ability to provide information technology support for the job. This theory maintain that information technology has a positive impact on performance of the individual and can be used if the ability of information technology fit in with the tasks that must be generated by the user.

    4. Human Organization Technology (HOT) Fit Model
      This evaluation model developed by Yusof et al, a series of new framework that can be used to conduct an evaluation of information systems. This model puts an important component in the system of information i.e., human, organizational and technological where there is alignment of conjunction.

How is implementation, strategy and tactics End User Computing?

Implementation End User Computing

As a user of information systems should require an understanding of the technology information system itself in developing the system. According to Nolan's there are 4 stages it is important to be able to determine the right time to implement EUC:

  1. Initiation Stage
    This stage about where the companies first technology information systems. In General, the companies had already passed this time but there are also still follow this initiation stage.

  2. Contagion Stage
    This stage where companies have started a lot of this information technology although the do or don't consider the fortunes of harm in the user information. This means that the benefits and costs actually ruled out but only to imitate some of the contenders.

  3. Control Stage
    This stage where the company has been selective in the user information. There were considerations of profit and loss. That is, if there are any individuals or divisions that need information technology procurement section will conduct the first evaluation of the costs that will be incurred and the profit obtained by the user information.

  4. Mature
    This stage where the companies have not thought of the profits and costs in user information but also used as a competitive advantage in the company in the user information.

Strategy End User Computing

The company is ready and do end user computing will have its own advantages in the use of the information. The development of the EUC in this company will be lead to a controlled growth point namely when EUC applied optimally. There are 3 strategies that will be achieved in the EUC:


  1. Acceleretion Strategy
    This strategy emphasizes on the speed of the expansion of the application of the EUC in terms of controlling the less noticed. It really puts the increase in the quantity of the number of managers who do the EUC.

  2. Containment Strategy
    This strategy will be different with the acceleretion strategy, this strategy even more emphasis on controlling of EUC compared to the speed of its application. In other words the development of EUC will be prioritizing the EUC on quality before later followed by the quantity that does the EUC.

  3. Balance Strategy
    This strategy is no priority balance between quality and quantity in the EUC achieve growth under control of the application of the EUC in the company. This strategy of many companies in the United States.

Tactics End User Computing


Regarding the discussion of information technology by the user EUC, there are few tactics application of EUC there are:

  1. End User Development (EUD) is one method of information system development carried out by the user by a company/organization in order to assist users in dealing with problems involving decisions that need structured settlement quick.

  2. In taking the user policy information system EUC should pay attention to advantages and disadvantages of the EUC.

  3. The users of information technology should have an understanding about the use and capabilities of information technology as well as technical ability in the areas of information technology.

  4. Must have the proper skills and tactics in EUC so managed optimally.

  5. Before the achievement of success, should pay attention to and take into consideration a lot of things about the risk or impacts that occur to users of information systems.

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