What Is Joint Application Design (JAD) ?

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The company wanted the progress made in the field of information systems. Information systems continue to evolve until the present, starting from the system life cycle (Life Cycle System) where the system requires formal stages and sequentially in doing so. This stage is very long and the costs are very expensive. Then came a new system that is Prototyping. Prototyping is a system that is faster than the system life cycle as it involves end users directly. The cost is also relatively cheaper than the life cycle of the system, but the system is untested and certainly inadequate for implementation because the system that seemed fast and in a hurry. Then the information system has been growing at a late stage in the traditional model of a system that is outsourcing. Outsourcing involves outside vendors in the development of information systems. Because it involves an outside vendor, the management company could lose its authority in the control system, as well as emerging feared the hidden costs that can be done by these outside vendors. On the basis of the weaknesses found in the traditional-based information systems company to switch to digital-based system is one of them is a Joint Application Design (JAD).


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Khoirunnisa Abidah


What is Joint Application Design (JAD)?

Joint Application Design (JAD) is a structured meeting between the information system users, managers, and expert information system within a few days or weeks. The meeting discussed the planning system and analysis system to obtain clarity regarding the identification of strategies, the identification process, and problem solving, as well as to establish a requirements specification, technical requirements, and designs were used.

Who is the pioneer of this design?

Started by a man named Arnie Lind's, who is a Senior System Engineer at IBM, Regina, Saskatchewan. The idea held Arnie Lind's very simple that he thinks rather than developing applications that learn about the work of people, why not teach people to make an application. The idea was submitted to IBM Canada's Vice President, Carl Corcoran. Carl approved of the idea and together with the named Arnie Joint Application Design Methodology. Previous methods are named Joint Application Logistic (JAL) but Carl Corcoran refused the name.

Joint Application Design process formalized by Tony Crawford and Chuck Morris in about 1970. IBM IBM use JAD to sell and implement their software, named COPICS. Then Tony Crawford develop JAD-Plan and Joint Application Requirement (JAL).

Why we use Joint Application Design?

Joint Application Design used due to a shift from the traditional system-based information into digital based information systems or technology, which is currently heavily dependent on the technology business. Besides the increased costs in manufacturing information system so that if the system information that is created does not match user expectations, as the maker of the system would feel the loss because the system did not sell. To be useful for the system that created users, system builders involved in designing the system users of the system.

At this time of increasingly sophisticated technology dna technology users are getting smarter, and therefore the information management system sees this huge opportunity. It would be very easy for management to teach how to create a system that fits user expectations, and of course it will reduce training costs for trainees getting smarter at using technology.

Why the user is important to develop this design?

According to Laela Dmodaran (1983) user involvement is very important in the design and development of information systems for:

  1. User Needs
    Users are people within the company while System analys or systems expert is a person outside the company. Useragar information system developed for the system can be applied. The system should be able to be absorbed and used by the user as well as possible, and who knows how the system can be absorbed completely is the user itself. That is why users need to be involved in the manufacture of the system.
  2. Knowledge of Local Conditions
    Information system designers need to know how the company's local conditions so that the system can be used to the maximum by the company, and the information system designers require the user to get the information.
  3. Reluctance to change
    Sometimes the user feels that the information system used does not suit your needs. To reduce the reluctance to change the user need to be involved in the design and development of information systems for the system to be used optimally.

When we use Joint Application Design?

Joint Application Design used when the user want a results in a product requirement models. Joint Application Design is only used for designing measures and plan a principle of how the success of the development of information systems.

Where this system is suitable to use?

JAD techniques suited to projects that require engineering analysis and design of systems with emphasis on the development of participation between the system owners, users, designers, and builders.

How the stage of Joint Application Design?

  1. Project Definition
    Determining the purpose and scope of the project, project constraints, and project team

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  2. Research
    The study is based on user requirements

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    In this second phase 2. Management meet business people and do activities such as observing (Observe), look back (Review) and discussion. After that then meet the designer system and perform activities such as technical advice (Technical Advice) and discussions). Here also prepared models that will be used in the workspace JAD during the meeting, such as Data Flow and Business Process.
  3. Preparation
    Preparing the JAD session as agenda, assistive devices and develop materials meeting

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    In this phase there is a Pre-Session Meeting which contains Orientation Overview by leaders, Material Preparation and Solution Guide. Then all the equipment needed during the JAD session later began to be prepared as: Flip Charts, Magnetics, Overhead Projectors, Electronic White Boards, Computer Projection Units, Tape / Video Recorder
  4. Session
    Facilitate meetings in solving the 'communication gap' between users with designer with engineering collaboration and brainstorming

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    JAD is a technique that focuses on the involvement and commitment of users in determining the need for and designing (design) applications. JAD is usually done in the form of a team that is a combination of all stakeholders of the project, who work in the form of workshops or discussion forum.
    Broadly speaking, the need to engage in JAD Sessions are as follows:
    1. Users Links, This sponsorship means the Project Owner, has a fairly high position in the organization and as the highest decision-making in the management of information systems. One important thing to do by the Project Owner is a strong commitment to the implementation of the information system will be carried out. One role of Project Owner is motivating all those involved in the project to participate while decision makers whether the project will work or not. In short, without a sponsor, then there is no project.
    2. End Users, Business Users, Managers, Business User is composed of two types, namely real end user and representative of the end user. Real end-user is the person who did the real work in the field. In case, it is the operators. While the representative end user is the person who knows that the business should be done, understand the spirit and goals of the system management. Usually this is the section chief, manager or senior operator.
    3. Facilitator, A facilitator serves as a moderator and directs each JAD activity involving multiple parties to be effective. A facilitator must have good skills in communication, providing stimuli and tricks so that the discussion can go well. The facilitator's role here is to ensure that the agenda can be achieved.
    4. system Analyst, A person or team that will be in-charge of the technology and process engineeringnya. System analys can be regarded as a "silent observers", namely hearing user an overview of business processes and data requirements, and provide comments on the technical and economic feasibility
    5. Scribe, Participants JAD charge of recording the contents of the JAD session. This task must be done very carefully because the results of these notes which are the raw materials for the system needs to be formulated.
      Development invites applications together all stakeholders (clients and developers). A JAD session takes 1-5 days / week. The maximum number of participants does not exceed 25 people.

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  1. Final Document
    Predicting and obtain approval for the final document to focus on business needs.

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    The output of this last phase are documents such as:
  • List of objectives
  • System Scope
  • Functional Requirements
  • Benefits
  • Priority of requirements
  • Systems Specifications
  • Process / data / object models
  • GUI Interfaces
  • Screen / report designs; menus,
  • Open Issues list and assignments
  • Project action plans and Dates for completion

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