What is a hacker?

what is a hacker


When talking about hacker you must think that it is the people who are evil or also called cyber criminals. Actually that's a big mistake about that. Hackers are people who make donations that benefit the computer network, share small programs and share them with the public. But in the literacy, Hackers are people who study, analyze, and furthermore want, can create, modify, or even exploit systems contained in a device such as computer software and computer hardware such as computer programs, administration and other things, especially security.


Contributor:
Yuniar Yuga Wardani


History

Hacker terminology appeared in the early 1960s among members of the Tech Model Railroad Club student organization at the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The group of students is one of the pioneers of computer technology development and they are struggling with a number of mainframe computers. The English word "hacker" first appeared with a positive meaning to refer to a member who has expertise in the field of computers and is able to make computer programs better than those that have been designed together. Then in 1983, the term hackers began to connote negatively. The reason, in that year for the first time the FBI arrested the computer criminal group The 414s based in Milwaukee, United States. 414 is their local area code. The so-called hackers were found guilty of breaches of 60 computers, from computers belonging to the Sloan-Kettering Memorial Cancer Center to computers belonging to the Los Alamos National Laboratory. One of the perpetrators was immunized for his testimonials, while the other five were sentenced to probation.

Then in the next development appears another group who mentions herself as a hacker, but it is not. These (especially adult men) who get satisfaction through breaking into the computer and outsmart the phone (phreaking). True hackers call these people crackers and do not like to associate with them. True hackers look at crackers as lazy, irresponsible, and not very smart. True hackers disagree if it says that by breaking into security someone has become a hacker.

The hackers hold an annual meeting, which is every mid-July in Las Vegas. The world's largest hacker gathering event is called Def Con. Def Con event is more to the event of information exchange and technology related to hacking activities.

Hackers have a negative connotation because of the misunderstanding of the community about the different terms of hackers and crackers. Many people understand that hackers are causing certain party losses such as changing the look of a website (defacing), inserting virus codes, etc., when they are crackers. Cracker is using the security gaps that have not been fixed by software makers (bugs) to infiltrate and destroy a system. For this reason the hackers are usually understood to be divided into two groups: White Hat Hackers, the real hackers and crackers are often called the Black Hat Hackers.


The differences between hacker and cracker

Some people confused to difine between hacker and cracker, so here the differences between them.

Hacker

It is a term for those who make a useful contribution to the world of networks and operating systems. Making internet technology more advanced as hackers use their expertise in computers to see, discover and fix weaknesses of security systems in a computer system or in a piece of software, creating an administrator's resume to work because hackers help administrators to strengthen their networks.

Cracker

It is a term for those who go into other people's systems and crackers are more destructive, usually on computer networks, bypass passwords or computer program licenses, deliberately against computer security, deface (change the webpage) of others even up to Delete other people's data, steal data.


Why do people being hacker?

Computer users have more knowledge in terms of programming and networking have a fundamental reason why they, inging, will, and become a hacker. The reason that should be the initial foundation to become a hacker is the desire to experiment and share information that is closely related to the field of information technology, you who want to follow the footsteps do not feel "inferior" with your current ability, do it consistently and consistently With your skills, join with peers who share the same vision and mission, form a solid group or small community so you and your colleagues can exchange positive information.


How hacker works?

There are various ways by a hacker to find the weakness of a website system so they can hack the website. There are various purposes of a hacker in hacking websites, stealing user information, to just a fad. Here are the various ways and tricks of a hacker to hack a website :
  1. Footprinting
  2. The initial intelligence on everything related to the intended target. In this way an attacker will obtain a complete security profile / posture from the organization / network that will be attacked.
  3. Scanning
  4. Scanning is a sign of the start of an attack by a hacker (pre-attack). At this stage, the hacker will look for various possibilities that can be used to take over the computer or system of the target. This stage can be done if the information obtained at the reconnaissance stage is sufficient so that hackers can look for "entrance" to master the system. Tools can help a hacker get through this stage.
  5. Enumeration
  6. Enumeration is the stage of getting information from the victim as well as the early stages of the hacking process only, you do it in a more active way because it directly targeted your victim. Because you are directly in touch with the victim, this action is very likely recorded by the firewall or IDS so it is considered a fairly dangerous stage for hackers.
  7. Gaining access
  8. Gaining access can also be said to be a penetration phase, where in this phase hackers exploit the weakness of a known system after performing reconnaissance and scanning activities. Hackers are trying to gain access, for example: hackers are trying to log in to gain administrator privileges when the hacker is not the administrator of the system.
  9. Escalating Privilege
  10. Escalating Privilege. If you just get a user password ditahap earlier, in this stage get privileged network admin with password cracking or similar exploit get admin, sechole, or lc_messages.
  11. Pilfering
  12. The information gathering process begins again to identify mechanisms to gain access to a trusted system. Includes trust evaluation and cleartext password search diregiatry, config file, and user data.
  13. Covering tracks
  14. Once full control of the system is obtained, closing the track becomes a priority. Includes clearing network logs and using hide tools such as rootkits and streaming files.
  15. Creating backdoor
  16. The rear door is created on various parts of the system to make it easy to re-enter the system by creating a fake user account, scheduling batch jobs, changing startup files, embedding remote control services and monitoring tools, and replacing applications with trojans.
  17. Denial Of service
  18. If all of the above attempts fail, the attacker may disable the target as a last resort. Includes SYN flood, ICMP techniques, Supernuke, land / latierra, teardrop, bonk, newtear, trincoo, and others.

Hacker Level

It turns out that Hackers also have several levels, you need to know if each level is distinguished between the ability and knowledge they have as a hacker, are :
  • Developed kiddie, which has the characteristics of age they are still young (children) and still in school, they tried various systems until finally succeeded and proclaimed victory to their other friend. Usually still using Graph User Interface (GUI) and UNIX Without being able to find new weaknesses in the operating system.
  • Lammer, which has experience and knowledge but they want to be a Hacker so lammer is often referred to as "wanna be" Hackers, using their main computer is playing games, exchanging software prirate, IRC, they steal credit cards, they do Hacking by using Software trojan, nuke & DoS, and need buddy know they often brag them.
  • Script kiddie, which has characteristics like developed kiddie and also lammer, they only have minimal technical knowledge of networking, And they can not be separated from GUI, hacking is done by trojan to scare and troubles some internet users.
  • Elite, which has the characteristics of understanding the internal operating system inside, they are able to confirm and connect the network globally. They are very efficient and skilled because do pemrogramman every day, they use the knowledge properly, do not destroy the data and always follow the existing rules . This elite level is usually called "MASTER".
  • Semi elite, which has the characteristics of the elite group, has the ability and extensive insight about computers, they understand the operating system (including kelemahanya), the ability progrannya enough to change the exploit program.

Types of hacking

We can separate the infiltrate into different categories, based on what is being hacked. Here is an example :
  • Website hacking
  • Hacking a website means taking unauthorized control over the webserver and related software such as databases and other interfaces.
  • Network hacking
  • Network hacking means collecting information about a network using tools such as Telnet, NS lookup, Ping, Tracert, Netstat, etc. with a view to harming the network system and hampering its operation.
  • Email hacking
  • Including gaining unauthorized access to the Email account and using it without taking the consent of the owner.
  • Ethical hacking
  • Ethical hacking involves finding weaknesses in computers or network systems for testing purposes and ultimately keeping them going.
  • Password hacking
  • This is the secret password recovery process from data stored on or transmitted by computer systems.
  • Computer hacking
  • This is the process of stealing computer IDs and passwords by applying hacking methods and gaining unauthorized access to computer systems.

Advantages and disadvantages of hacking

Hacking is quite useful in as can be seen below

  • To recover lost information, especially in case you forgot your password
  • To perform penetration testing to strengthen computer and network security
  • To place adequate preventive measures to prevent security breaches
  • Have a computer system that prevents malicious hackers gain access

Disadvantages of hacking

Hacking is very dangerous if done with dangerous intent. This can cause :
  • Major breach of security
  • Unauthorized system access to personal information
  • Privacy violation
  • Inhibits the operating system
  • Service denials attack
  • Malicious attacks on the system

Conclusion

Hackers use their computer skills to view, discover and fix security vulnerabilities in a computer system or in software. Therefore, thanks to the hackers that the Internet exists and we can enjoy as now, so hackers can be called a network hero being cracker can be called as a network criminal for doing infiltration with the intention of benefiting himself personallity with the intention of harming others.


References

http://www.kafetechno.com/2016/11/mengenal-istilah-istilah-dalam-dunia-hacking.html
https://books.google.co.id/books?isbn=1452904286
https://books.google.co.id/books?isbn=1446453510

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