Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

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Kontributor :

Iqbal Rizza


What is Wireless Sensor Network

In the present technological development, without our awareness we all who work or do activity by utilizing the technology is using wireless sensor network. Wireless sensor network itself is one of the technology in computer network which to understand more detail about WSN we need to know about what is meant by computer network.

Generally, computer network is an operating system consisting of two or more computers connected to each other through transmission media or communication media either by using a cable or without using a cable (wireless) so that it can share data, applications, etcetera. In network technology, there are several parts included in network technology including wireless network, zigbee, PAN (Personal Area Network), Bluetooth, and peer to peer.

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a network that connects devices such as sensor nodes, routers and sink nodes. This device is ad-hoc connected and supports multi-hop communication. The term ad-hoc refers to the ability of devices to communicate with each other directly without the need for network infrastructure such as routers or access points. Meanwhile, multi-hop is a term that refers to the communication of multiple devices involving intermediate, multi-hop devices involving intermediate devices such as routers to forward a packet from one node to another node in the network.

In general, Wireless Sensor Network is defined as one type of distributed wireless network, which utilizes embedded System technology and sensor node devices to perform sensor processing, monitoring, data transmission, and presentation of information to users via internet communication. Sensors include many types, including humidity, radiation, temperature, pressure, mechanics, motion, vibration, position, etcetera. Each type of sensor has its own software (application, operating system) and hardware, which will be merged and operated into the WSN system.

For example, to censor position or location, a GPS (Global Positioning System) device is used includes GPS hardware (inside a smartphone), an operating system, and supporting GPS applications. Another example, two parts of computer connected each other placed between the mouth of the river near the sea, to scan and notify users in case of overflowing rivers or seawater as an indication of the occurrence of floods or tsunami.

WSN Supporting Technology

  1. Peer to Peer (P2P)
    Main Concept in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is peer to peer (P2P). Thus a strong comprehension of P2P is important. Peer to peer is a paradigm, technology, and modeling network which is every peer (term for every node) connected and contribute each other in providing service and data exchange, without client and server existence, because every peer acts as client and server at once. Every data and content in sharing in internal P2P network for all or some node. It could be said that peer to peer (P2P) minimize dependency in computer server.
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  2. PAN (Personal Area Network)
    Generally, defined thar Personal Area Network (PAN) is one of computer networks which created to connect computer to other connection-capable devices with relatively short and personal connection spacing. For example, connection between notebook with smartphone through Bluetooth, WiFi, Infra Red, and Zigbee. How Personal Area Network works similar to computer network’s, including wireless network. Two or more computer device have a plugin (additional device) that allows for quick and easy connections. The most common example is the connection using bluetooth. The existence of support in the form of plugin (feature) Bluetooth on the computer and the device to be connected will facilitate in creating a simple short distance connection in the form of Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN).
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  3. Bluetooth
    Bluetooth is currently the best technology icon for Personal Area Network (PAN). This is because Bluetooth is mostly used as an example, Bluetooth connection can be used to perform file sharing to computers and smartphones over a wider network topology like ordinary wireless networks.
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  4. ZigBee
    Both Bluetooth and Zigbee, both equally widely used in wireless networks, including Personal Area Network (PAN). As two protocols implemented by wireless networks, Zigbee and Bluetooth both offer a number of advantages to each user. However Zigbee offers a number of advantages:
    1. The network coverage on Zigbee is much wider than Bluetooth.
    2. Zigbee takes a very short time to be able to join into a computer network, through connected devices.
    3. Zigbee is much more power-efficient than Bluetooth.
    4. In one network Personal Area Network (PAN) Zigbee able to accommodate up to 65.000 client (computer) and peer (if nature technology Peer to Peer).
    5. In the case of alliances and certifications, Zigbee has been internationally certified by an organization called Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEE).

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Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Component

A system on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) generally consists of 3 main nodes. The three main nodes on wsn consist of Node Sensor, Node Gateway, Node Router. These three are interconnected to one another forming a system on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) :

  1. Sensor Node
    Node Sensor serves as a node that processes the sensor against the environment where Wireless Sensor Network is implemented to obtain some data, which is then sent to the server online via the internet. Each node has hardware and software that supports the sensor process.
  2. Gateway Node
    In the network of computers, Gateway is like the entrance of data packets (whether in the form of messages, documents, and other digital files) from the home computer to the destination computer. Similarly also with the Gateway Node or also called Sink Node. The Gateway node becomes the node acting as the gateway of the data packets sent by the sensor node and received by the central computer (server).
  3. Node Router
    Node Router on WSN works just like Router on computer network generally. The Router Node acts as the router in charge of determining the route for sending the address from the originating source (sender) to the destination address (the recipient). In this case the Node Router has three main functions :
    • To route in sending and receiving data packets from a sensor node to another sensor node
    • To create a route inside the sending and receiving of data packets from the sensor node to the WSN server database
    • To create a route inside the sending and receiving of data packets from the WSnN server database to the sensor node

Characteristics of WSN

As one of the technologies in computer networks, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has six features that distinguish it from other types of computers. The six main features include the presence of at least two sensor nodes, having Self Organizing Network (SON), having Self Network Maintenance (SNM), sending broadcast data packets, using Multi Hop Routing, and communications made in terms of relatively close distances.

  1. Consists of at least two Node Sensors
    The first feature of the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is that at least two sensor nodes are connected to each other, autonomous (non-server dependent), self-serving and able to serve other sensor nodes.
  2. Self Organizing Network (SON)
    The second feature of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is that Wireless Sensor Network consists of a number of sensor nodes, have intelligent capabilities in the form of implementation of Artifical Intelligence to be able to process planning, configuration, management and optimization of the computer network it occupies.
  3. Self Network Maintenance (SNM)
    The third feature of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is Self Network Maintenance (SNM) is its ability to perform maintenance, maintenance and repair computer network occupied by node sensor independently or autonomy.
  4. Delivery of Broadcast Datta Packages
    The fourth feature of the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is the delivery of data packets that are broadcast
  5. Using Multi Hop Routing
    Characteristic of the wireless Sensor Network (WSN) feature is the ability to use Multi Hop Routing between Node Sensors in the transmission of data packets from the original sensor node to the destination sensor node.
  6. Communication is done within a relatively short distance
    The sixth feature of Wireless Sensor Network is that communication between sensor nodes is done within a relatively close range.

Wireless Sensor Network Technology (WSN) and its Relation

  1. Parallel Computing, Clouding Computing, and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN).
  2. Internet of Things (IoT) / Machine to Machine (M2M) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN).
  3. Smart City and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN).

Application of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

Implementation of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) can be used in many ways including:

  1. Military Sector
    The military wireless sensors network (WSN) is used to monitor enemy movements and protect border areas and monitor military and troop activities, and can be used to detect enemy attacks from land, sea or air
  2. Agriculture Sector
    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) in agriculture is used for monitoring agricultural water and irrigation processes
  3. Health Sector
    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) in the health field is used for Structural Health Monitoring
  4. Education Sector
    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) in education is used for mobile learning
  5. Transportation
    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) in the field of transportation is used to make electric toll payments, traffic flow management on road congestion

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