TECHNOLOGY OF STORAGE

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Kontributor :
Riski Endah

Technology storage is technology that consisting of computer components and recording media that used to retain digital data. Nowadays, there are many of storage media but only three main types of storage technology. They are in the following :
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  1. Solid State Devices
    Solid state devices is device that have no moving parts, that means they can’t get worn out and are not quite as easily damaged by bangs and knocks as optical and magnetic devices. They store data in binary patterns using billions of tiny switches. Solid state devices is device that need very little power to work and can get the power that they do need from the device that they are plugged into.
    The examples of solid state devices : SD cards, micro SD cards, and pen drives.
  2. Magnetic Devices
    These devices store binary data patterns as billions of areas that magnetized on disk. These areas can be read from or written to by a special head that moves over the magnetic area. The disk can moves very quickly such as thousand of times a second while the head moves over the magnetized areas, reading from and writing data to the disk. One of the things that important knowing when you buy new this disk is how fast the disk or disk spin, because the faster they spin the quick reading and writing data can take place so the faster your computer can work.
    The examples of magnetic devices : hard disk and floopy disk
  3. Optical Devices
    These devices store binary patterns using lasers, the lasers shine inton a disk ada change whether an area on it can reflect light or not. The laser can then be used to read back patterns by shining a laser on the disk and looking at which areas reflect light and which don’t.
    The examples of optical devices : CD-ROMs, DVDs and Blu-ray
    So, we will continuing discuss more deeply about these three storage technology types to knowing the difference each storage media that we don’t know before.


SOLID STATE DEVICE

A solid-state drive or SSD is device that uses integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data persistently. New input/output interfaces (SATA express and M.2) have been designed to address specific requirements of the Solis State Devices (SDDs) technology.

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This disk have no moving mechanical components. Compared with traditional electromagnetical devices, this devices are typically more resistant to physical shock, run silently, have quicker access time and lower latency.
However, while the price of solid state devices has continued to decline over time but it is still more expensive per unit of storage than traditional electromagnetical (hard disk and floopy disk) and predicted to continue to be so into the next decade.
In 2017, most solid state devices use 3D TLC NAND-based flash memory. It’s a type of non-volatile memory that retains data when power is lost. Solid state devices maybe constructed from random access memory (RAM) for application requiring fast access but not necessarily data persistence after power loss. All solid state device still store data in electrical charges which slowly leak over time if left without power. Therefore, this devices are not suited for archival purposes.
The continues, we will discusses about the example of SSDs :

SD card

Secure Digital (SD) card is a non-volatile memory card format developed by the SDA (SD Card Association) for use in portable devices. The standard was introduced in August 1999 by joint efforts between SanDisk, Panasonic, and Toshiba as an improvement over multimedia cards (MMC).

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Secure Digital includes 4 card families, there are :

  • SDSC ( Original Standard Capacity)
  • SDHC ( The High Capacity )
  • SDXC ( The Extended Capacity)
  • SDIO ( Combining input and output with data storage)

Their cards has 3 different sizes :

  • Original Size
  • Mini Size
  • Micro Size

The SD card small footprint is an ideal storage medium for smaller, thinner, and more portable electronic devices.

Micro SD

Micro SD short of Micro Secure Digital that is a type of removable flash memory card for storing an abbreviation of secure digital. Micro SD card are sometimes referred to as USD. Its used in mobile phones and other mobile devices and the smallest memory card that 15 mm ×11 mm ×1 mm (as the size of fingernail).

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In this device, there are adapters that make the small microSD able to fit in devices that have slots for standard SD, MiniSD, Memory Stick Duo Card, and even USB but noat all of the different cards can work together. Many microSD are sold with a standard Secure Digital adapter so that people can use them in devices that take standard SD but not microSD cards.
The microSD format was made by the company SanDisk and it was first called T-flash and then changed to be TransFlash before being named microSD by SD Card Association (SDA). Thus the final microSD details were announced on July 13, 2005.
In February 2014, SanDisk announced a new MicroSD card that called MicroSDXC. At the time, the cards held up to 128 GB.

MAGNETIC DEVICE/DISK

Magnetic disk is tool that used as storage media that most popular at modern computer system. Magnetic disk consisting of one or more flat, round disk with a magnetic surface on which data can be written. These disk are usually made by metal or plastic that whose the surface covering with materials that can be magnetized such as iron-oxide, these magnet’s effect important for read-write process from that’s memory because the read-write process using head that need this magnetic effect. Magnetic disk made by plastic called floopy disk or mini disk and other that made by metal called hard disk. The components of magnetic disk are track, sector, cylinder, platter, spindle, read-write head, and arm. Like picture in below

  • Track is consentris rings or lines in surface of disk, each track separate by gap that can avoid or decreasing the mistake of reading and writing process caused
  • Sector is blocks that exist in each track for store data, usually in one track consist 10 until 100 sector
  • Cylinder is separator of one track with another tracks
  • Platter is the circular disk on which magnetic data is stored in hard disk drive
  • Read -write head is induction coil that suspended in air in which holding by the arm
  • Arm assembly is the arm that holding all of components of disk to be one
  • Spindle is the metal in middle of the disk as central of moving or rotation the disk.
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Two Addressing method in magnetic disk, there are cylinder method and sector method. Cylinder method using cylinder number, surface disk number, and record number. In this method, all track from disk pack forming to be a cylinder. Thus, in Sector Method each track divided into some sectors. Each sector is storage area, record addressing in this method based on sector number , track number, and surface number.
Characteristics about magnetic disk divided into five things, there are :

  • Head Moving : Fixed Head (one per track) and Movable Head (one per surface)
  • Disk Portabilities : Removable (can changed by other disk/removed from disk drive) and Unremovable (permanent in disk drive)
  • Sides : Single Sided (only one surface that magnetized) and Double Sided (both side of surface disk are magnetized)
  • Platters : Single Platter and Multiple Platter
  • Mechanism : Contact (floppy), Fixed Gap, Aerodunamic Gap

The history of magnetic disk is it was created first time by inventor from Chicago in 1869, he is Marvin Camras. He was born in Chicageo in 1916 and died in 1995, in his family he known as an inventor from age of five. As he get older, he starting focus his skill on electronic with continuing his studied in Armour institute of Technology (now Illinois Institute of Technology) and take electrical engineering discipline. He begin invented magnetic disk when his cousin became an opera singer and he want to record his cousin singing but at that time there is no recording tool that satisfied him. So, he create magnetic recording head that would surround but not touch the wire.
Magnetic disk support the internet society everywhere as high technology product that used in personal computers, server systems, digital home appliances and others. The levels of storage required for digital data is increasing all time. Reading and writing to disk is done with magnetic head, and the distance between the head and disk surface is only a few nanometers. In order to improve storage density, this distance has gradually decreased year by year.
Magnetic disk is still exit now but not popular anymore for storage data interest. Nowadays, there are many of media storage that more practice. Magnetic disk maybe still use for recording company generally we known for singing record interest. This disk to be best choice when we want saving data in permanent condition or rewriteble. Thus, when you search disk that made by metal, it is angel because mostly disk that sell is disk that made by plastic (floppy disk). You can find metal magnetic disk in certain magnetic disk producing company.
The process how data store in disk is the disk controller changes the code designated by the record address and points to the track on which the device is located. Access arm is moved, so the position of read / write head is located on the right cylinder. This read / write head points to the current track. Then the disk will rotate until it points to the record in the location of the read / write head. Then the data will be read and transferred through the channel requested by the program in the computer.
Access Time = ( Seek Time + Head Activation Time + Rotational Delay + Time Transfer)

  • SEEK TIME (transfer arm to cylinder)
    It is the time it takes to drive the read / write head on the disk to the proper cylinder position.
  • HEAD ACTIVATIONAL TIME (track selection)
    It is the time it takes to drive the read / write head on the disk to the proper track position.
  • ROTATIONAL DELAY (selection of records)
    It is the time required for rotation of the disk to the correct record position.
  • TRANSFER TIME
    Is the time that shows the speed of rotation and the amount of data transferred.
    First, we will discuss about magnetic disk that made by metal called hard disk.
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Hard disk usually apply and integrate in CPU (Fixed disk). Thus, Disk drive is mechanism that causing the data that already save can be read or written in harddisk. In harddisk there are some circle metal flats that arranged by layers and also there is metal flat mover and its read-write head. Advantage from harddisk is it can saving data in large amount and also have speed when calling back the data that already save.
Pack is layers of disk flat. Generally, in one pack there are 11 disk flats/plates with diameter 14 inch (or 8 inch in minidisk) and mostly like black disk. At disk pack, there are 20 disk surface for store the data. Both of side from each flat/plate used for store the data except the most of top and bottom disk surface, because that’s area are easier get dirty.
Second, there is floopy disk or magnetic disk that made by plastic.

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Floopy disk is a hardware that serves as reader and data storage device. Basically, floopy disk is used as a tool to read the diskette as place to write and storage data and run the operating system and application. The type of floopy disk :

  • Large size, consists of 5.1 inch or 4 inch and 360- 720 kb
  • Small size, consists of 3.1 or 5 inches and 14 Mb

In the era of the 1990s, floopy disk is aglorious portable computer storage device. Until 2002, there were still many floopy disks as data storage media and running operating and application. Thus, over the years this disk has shifted or changed by advanced technology that developed more rapid. The function of floopy disk is to store data with limited memory that only reaches 1.44 Mb only. The stored data can also be acccessed in other computer aimed at extracting the data within the floopy disk for later access to its contents.
The history of floopy disk is it was created by IBM in 1967 with size 8 inches then developed to 5.25 inch. In 1979s, floopy disk flourished again into 3.5 inch which then control the market along of 90s. The first floopy is a plastic disks coated with magnetic iron oxide. The data is written and read from the disk surface. The name of “floopy” is taken because of its flexible packaging properties.
Since 2003 until now, hard disk and floopy disk are not used oftenly anymore.

OPTICAL DEVICE/DISK

Optical device is the storage of data on an optically readable medium. Data is recorde by making marks in a pattern that can be read back with the aid of light that usually a bearn of laser light precisely focused on spinning optical disk. An older example of this device is microform, it doesn’t require the use of computers.
Optical storage/device differs from other data storage techniques that make use of other technologies such as magnetism ( floopy disk and hard disk) or semiconductors ( Flash memory and RAM ). Optical storage can range from a single drive reading a singleCD-ROM to multiple drives reading multiple disk (optical jukebox).
The example of optical device is Blu-Ray Disc (BD)

clip_image002[5]Blu-Ray Disk is a digital optical disk dta storage format that designed to supersede the DVD format. Its capable of storing several hours of video in high definition (HDTV 720p and 1080p) and ultra high definition (2160p). The name of Blu-Ray refers to the blue laser (violet laser) that used to read the disk which allows information to be stored at agreater density than is possible with the longer-wavelenth red laser used for DVDs.
That’s all the explanation about the storage technology which old traditional storage technology and the most popular storage technology in nowadays. I hope you can understand now about the difference about hard disk, floopy disk, SD card, memorySD, Blu-Ray, CD-ROM, and others after read this article. So, you can choose appropriate device or storage with your objectives in the future concerning first about how much the size and the efficient of that’s device for you.

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