What is Android??

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Right now technology being “need” it self for people. Because with technology, life easier and more practical endured itself into technology and almost every people in this world Addicted with technology. Technological advances from various fields are now unexpected, which once was just something that is impossible to exist now one by one technology the impossible being exist. One such technology is Mobilephone.

Mobile is one technology that has short tecnology discruptive. Which is where the functions replacement and features of the previous version with the new version Changed very quickly. The mobile phone that used to function only for phone and SMS (Short message service) is now functioning a lot of changes such as to watch television, access social media, listen to music, take photos, video calls, access the internet and get news that happened today, so now there is another term that is “Mobilephone” to "smartphone". Behind the term smartphone it turns out there is a software that takes a large part to run all the features are called OS for example Android, IOS, Symbian. But what will be discussed is "android". how android development and why can almost all the world's smartphones have been adapted by this OS?



Kontributor:

Farid Saefudin


ANDROID?

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Android is a linux operating system as its base, specially designed for touch-screen devices such as smarthphone or tablet computer. Android name taken from its own company that is ANDROID inc. Linux itself is one of the operating system (OS) that applied the same computer as WINDOWS. But unlike windows that tend to be closed, linux is an opensource OS where sourcekodenya can be modified according to the needs of users. Therefore most hackers use linux as their OS.


Goals?

The first time Android was created with the aim of being a Advance System for digital cameras, but the resulting market was not big enough. Then, andoid inc Change their strategy to smartphones being Competitors for symbian and iOS. Although the first release android release is not desirable at all, but with the development of technology in smartphones that must be flexible with new features inside, android is the most suitable OS where it speciality only for touchscreen smartphone, which where the phone uses the keypad is no longer interested because it requires more energy to operate it.


Android Advantage Compare to another OS

  1. User Friendly
  2. almost all of Android has Guide tutorial which where if there is a customer who first operate android can learn only in few hours or few days only.

  3. Notification
  4. notification is very important if there is a message or other important things in, in android notifications have been diverse, such as: Blinking light, vibrate, and even audio that can be customized themselves.

  5. Openscore
  6. as well as linux as its base, android young once changed its code for certain purposes this term is usually called jailbreak. And also very young mengubaah applications from playstore for the Modding.

  7. Display
  8. usually android supported by Chips processor and GPU as hardware. And GPU function here is very important to set the quality of display screen resolution. And also usually android is equipped with a clear screen as well.

  9. Application
  10. Android has its own cloud strorage for their collection of apps "playstore / “appstore" where if the user eases acces the android’s app, users can visit the appstore and download the available apps


Android’s disadvantages Compared another OS

  1. Update System
  2. because a lot of smartphone brands that use android as base, to update the latest OS. Users must wait for the update from each vendor.

  3. Battery run out quickly
  4. because so many systems from android running at once, can cause the battery runs out quickly.

  5. Lagging and slow performance
  6. lagging arise when the memory of android is full and updated Os not in accordance with the required smartphone specifications. Moreover, there are some vendors who apply the OS update automatically.


Android’s development and versions


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Android 1.0 Apple pie

Android 1.0 doesn’t have any specific code name. Gmail, Google Calendar, Google Maps, pull down notification window and Android market are the main features of this version.

Android 1.5 – Cupcake

Android 1.5 was the first version to get a code name It was named as cupcake and launched in April 2009. The main feature of this version was animated transition effects. Other notable features include uploading videos to YouTube, uploading photos to Picasa

Android 1.6 – Donut

Android 1.6 was launched in September 2009. Multi-Select Photos in gallery, 800 x 480 resolution screen support, Android search, voice search Functionality, Handwriting gestures are some of the important features in this version.

Android 2.0/2.1 – Eclair

Eclair was launched in October 2009 focusing on media features like flash support, scene mode, white balance, color effect & Digital zoom. Speech-to-text, Improved keyboard functionality and multiple home screens.

Android 2.2 – Froyo

Froyo was launched in May 2010 which included Speed, memory, performance optimizations and minor bug fixes. Froyo allowed the users to install the apps on SD card, 720p screens support, USB tethering and Wi-Fi hotspot functionality.

Android 2.3 – Gingerbread

Gingerbread was launched in December 2010. Internet telephone, video chat capability and NFC communications are main features of gingerbread. Support for multiple cameras on the device, voice or video chat support using Google Talk, Google Wallet for the Nexus S 4G are other notable features.

Android 3.0/3.1/3.2 – Honeycomb

Honeycomb was launched in February 2011 and was mainly designed for Tablets. Multiple browser tabs, incognito mode, Redesigned keyboard, Hardware acceleration and accurate on larger screen sizes, ability to encrypt all user data are features of Honeycomb.

Android 4.0 – Ice Cream Sandwich

Ice Cream Sandwich was launched in October 2011 and improved UI is major update of this version. Multicore CPU support, virtual buttons, Face Unlock feature and improved copy and paste functionality are some of the important features of ice cream sandwich. This version also provided features like Easier-to-create folders, with a drag-and-drop style, Pinch-to-zoom functionality in the calendar and Built-in photo editor.

Android 4.1 / 4.2 / 4.3 – Jelly Bean

Jelly Bean was launched in July 2012 with may bug fixes. Smoother UI, Enhanced accessibility, New clock application with built-in world clock, stop watch and timer, Group Messaging, Native emoji support are major features of Jelly Bean.

Android 4.4 – KitKat

KitKat was launched in October 2013. It runs fast, smooth, and responsively on a much broader range of devices. Low power consumption sensors, improved NFC communications, printing framework, translucent UI styling are main features of KitKat versions.

Android 5.0 / 5.1 – Lollipop

On November 2014 google launched Android Lollipop that mainly focused on Performance. High-performance graphics, powerful audio, Screen capturing and sharing and Document-centric apps are main features of Lollipop version

Android 6.0 - Marshmallow

Marshmallow was launched in October 2015. Audio Manager changes, Text Selection, Browser Bookmark Changes, Android KeyStore Changes and USB Connection are main updates of this version.

Android 7.0 - Nougat

Nougat was launched in August 2016. Scoped Directory Access, Direct Boot, Messaging Service Active Notifications and Multi-Window Playground are main updates in this version

Android 8.0 - Oreo

Oreo was launched in August 2017. Autofill Framework, Downloadable Fonts, Picture-in-Picture Mode, Notification Channels, Background Execution Limits, Background Location Restrictions and audio are main updates in Oreo.


Android Logo


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The android logo was first created in 2007 by Irina block. The designer team is required to create a design that always follows the development of dynamic times, therefore they choose the robot as a logo. because, the robot as logo is closely related to the revolutionary technology.


Creator and developer android

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Behind the success of android as the most popular OS in the world and IOS as a competitor. the creator of android itself is Andy rubin. Andy Rubin is a graduate From Ultica university, New York and an important figure behind the creation of Android. Via android inc, andy get 17 patents. In October 2003, Rubin founded the startup company Android, Inc. in Palo Alto, California, along with his other colleagues Rich Miner, Nick Sears, Chris White. Initially they planned to develop an advanced operating system for smart cameras, but finally realized that the smart camera market is not big enough. They also changed the course of producing the operating system for smartphones that were rising at the time.

After android success and replace symbian. It comes from the old brand and also new adapt android like:

- Samsung

- Sony

- Vivo

- Xiaomi

- Oppo

- Huawei

- onePlus

- Asus

- LG

- Blackberry

Nokia as Os Symbian holder will inevitably have to follow adapt changes and switch to android. because Symbian began to be abandoned by the customer.


When Android Became famous in the world

Beginning In 2005 when Google acquired Android inc.

After the acquisition by google on August 17, 2005, there are still many officials android inc. Which is still incorporated therein. This is where the heyday of android begins in countries and American android silently dominate the market, while for the Asian region is still used to using the symbia of nokia.

In December 2006, there was news that Google is working hard to launch a phone that is covered by android, it is News come From the BBC

In 2010, Google released the Nexus series; smartphones and tablet devices with the Android operating system manufactured by cell phone manufacturer partners such as HTC, LG and Samsung. HTC is working with Google to release the first Nexus smartphone product, the Nexus One.

Since 2008, Android has gradually made a number of updates to improve operating system performance, add new features, and fix bugs contained in previous versions. Each major version released is named alphabetically based on names of desserts or sugary snacks; for example, version 1.5 is named Cupcake, followed by version 1.6 Donut. The latest version is 5.0 Lollipop, which was released on October 15, 2014.

From year to year android growing and always follow the dynamics of technology and human needs ranging from internet access, social media live, practicality in work. Smartphones seem to change the lives of humans Slowly. Until now android is still the most widely used OS worldwide.


In which country android is mostly used?

  1. China
  2. No wonder China is the largest user of Android because china has the most population in the world there are about 900 million android users in this country, and this country also emerge many smartphone production companies like Xiaomi, huawei, Asus, Vivo and Oppo.

  3. India
  4. India has a large population of Chinese, but in this country does not have a smartphone production company, it is estimated that there are 780 million android users in this country

  5. America
  6. America which is the headquarters of Apple which is a rival android, it is still many countries that use android according to calculations there are about 250 million android users

  7. Indonesia
  8. Almost all the population of Indonesia from all circles both young and old are using android, there are about 180 million android users in indonesia.Most smartphone production companies focus their segmentation to Asian countries, because it has a lot of population and almost every country 60-70% of the population using android


Why is android the choice of most people?

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Android becomes an option because, this Os has a high mobility which where android itself is connected with google’s products. Always in accordance with what the customer wants, android smartphone price is relatively lower than its biggest rival is IOS (Iphone). Every time android always innovate which reduces the gap between software and hardware in the system. And also android has more applications than their rival. And also android has a variety of devices from different vendors, and the most important is the user can free costume their own device either software or hardware.


How android work?

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Android Application architecture system

  1. Linux kernel
  2. At the bottom, there is a drive installation which aims to run attached hardware such as camera, wifi, audio

  3. Libraries
  4. In this library there are several applications to collect all media in one place and here there are installations related to the display quality and operation of the existing media files themselves

  5. Android Runtime
  6. Still one line with libraries, the difference is here android runtime there is a virtual dalvik that can optimize the storage of media on the executable memory. And core libraries are almost the same as Java because there is a combination of all the features java and libraries android itself

  7. Application framework
  8. In this section, all running applications can be managed with one interface, whether the application is still running or has stopped. All running processes can be seen in device manage which is part of application framework

  9. Application layer
  10. This is where the top of the android architecture, this section of applications from outside parties can be installed and here also the results of all the diagrams used, because in android we only select the applications available in appstore and run it.


POSITIVE IMPACT ON BUSINESS

Initially android apps were utilized only for entertainment purposes, but with the incredible role played by it business, it is now understood that they can make a great impression in any business and brings in positive results. Android applications have increased terrifically in the recent years and as it is an open source market it permits dealers and developers to take their applications straightly to the potential audience.


BENEFITS OF USING ANDROID PLATFORM IN BUSINESS

o Open source platform of this software assure higher flexibility

o If compared to IOS cost of hardware is really considerable

o Outstanding Google apps integration

o Smartphone’s and tablet of android 4.0 provide unfailing user interfaces

At present it has the prevalent market share in Smartphone’s, which means these applications are already in use.

These different benefits lead to the rushing of android phones into both small and large sized business.


SECURITY FEATURES

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In terms of security and management features, android phones have improved their profile and standing ahead of its competitors. Some of the highlighted security features of this software include,

o Device lock

o Password protection

o Data encryption

This allows business to allow their employees to select the device of their choice as there is no risk in the data and system. There are certain steps that business should make use of if they are in the idea of implementing android devices for their business and assures them safety of using the devices.


DO NOT AVOID PERSONAL DEVICES

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If personal devices are allowed there may be options that any of the people concerned in the business may be already using such device. If dependable advice on, how to handle personal devices at work is learned it can offer immense benefits. Skilled IT department is also a better way to make sure on the security of business.


GOOGLE APPS TO CONTROL ANDROID SECURITY POLICIES

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With the implementation of Google apps device policy, it is probable to ensure or assist in enforcing the security policies on the android apps. Some of the enforced security policies include, o Locking idle device o Fixing password requirements o Wiping lost or stolen devices o Implement Mobile Device Management (MDM) With this solution, it allows business to observe, deal with and support android and several other devices. It is commonly accomplished through a central console that permits distant access and updates. An extensive range of MDM products are accessible in the market and it includes Juniper, MobileIron and Trellia. It is better to make wide research and find out an integrated solution other than using variety of tools.


Conclusion

Technology, especially smartphones as it has become a need itself beyond food and clothing. Android itself can be spelled out all the evolution in the field of information technology because almost all the world's advanced devices are connected directly with android. Almost everyone in this world has a device based on android. In the past android almost like ignored, but because of the dynamics of the times, the need for the flexibility of phones that Multitasking can emerge. And it's available on android, almost all the work and human activities helped by android.

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