System analysis

What is system analysis

System analysis is the decomposition of a system that have completely of information into part component to view identifying and evaluating the problems, opportunities, constraints and expected needs so that proposed improvements can be proposed.

Dewi Widiastuti

What is system analysis?

What is meant by system analysis is the information system that has been intact into its component parts with the aim of identifying and evaluating various problems and obstacles that occur in the system so that later can be done repair or development. While people or groups that do the design and improvement on a system called systems analyst

Why is system analysis done?

In the analysis phase of the system there are basic steps that must be done by system analysis, as follows:

Identify the problem (Identify)

Problem identification is the first step of system analysis. In this stage defined the problem to be solved with the emergence of the question to be solved. The tasks that a systems analyst should do are:
  1. Identify the cause of the problem Often the organization realizes the problem that occurred after something went wrong. Problems will not come naturally and there should be something causing them.
  2. Identify the decision point Once the cause of the problem can be identified, it should also identify the decision point of the cause of the problem. Then further need to be identified further the decision point that causes a process to be imperfect. Decision points indicate a condition that causes something to happen. As a basis for identification of these decision points, a document can be used in a paperwork flowchart or form flowchart if the documentation is owned by the company.
  3. Identify key personnel Once the decision points of the cause of the problem can be identified along with the location of the occurrence, the next to be identified are key personnel either directly or indirectly causing the problem to occur. Identification of key personnel can be done by referring to the flow chart of existing documents in the company as well as job description documents.

Understand existing system work (Understand)

This step can be done by studying in detail how the existing system operates. Required data can be obtained by doing research. A number of data needs to be collected by using existing data collection techniques that are interviews, observations, questionnaires and sampling.

Analyzing the system (Analyze)

This step is based on data that has been obtained from the results of research that has been done. Based on these questions and criteria, then system analysts will be able to perform analysts from research results well to find weaknesses and problems of the existing system.

Make a report (Report)

The results of the analysis report submitted to the Steering Committee which will be forwarded to management. The management side together with the steering committee and system users will study the findings and analysts that have been done by systems analysts presented in this report.

Who does the analysis?

A systems analyst is someone who is responsible for research, planning, co-ordinating, and recommends the selection of software and systems that best suits the needs of a business or company organization. Systems analysts play a very important role in the system development process. A systems analyst must have at least four skills: analytical, technical, managerial, and interpersonal (communicating with others). The analytical capability allows a systems analyst to understand organizational behavior along with its functions, understanding it will help in identifying the best possible and analyzing problem solving.

Technical expertise will help analysis the systems to understand the opourtunity of information technology also the limitations. A system analyst should be able to work with different types of programming languages, operating systems, as well as the hardware used. Managerial expertise will help a systems analyst manage projects, resources, risks, and changes. Interpersonal skills will help system analysts interact with end users as well as with analysts, programmers, and other system professions.

The systems analyst may also be the intermediary or liaison between the software vendor and the organization in which he works, and is responsible for the analysis of development costs, design and development proposals, and determines the time span required. Systems analysts are also responsible for the feasibility study of a computer system before making a proposal to the management company.

Basically a systems analyst does the following:
  1. Interact with customers to understand the needs of the system that will be in use.
  2. Interact with the designer to express the desired interface of a software.
  3. Interact or guide the programmers in the system development process to stay on track.
  4. Melakukan good test system with sample data or real data to help the testers.
  5. Implementing a new system / proposed system that will be used by the company.
  6. Prepare quality documentation.

This is the function of the systems analyst

As for some functions of the system analyst, which includes:
  1. Can identify various problems of the user (user).
  2. Determine clearly the goals to be achieved to meet the needs of the user.
  3. Can choose alternative methods to solve problems with the system.
  4. Can plan or apply the system design in accordance with what the user wants.

Responsibility of the analyst system

The responsibilities of a systems analyst, among them include:
  1. Effective data retrieval from source.
  2. Data flow on the system.
  3. Data collection and storage.
  4. The flow of useful information back to the process as well as its users.


When is system analysis used?

This stage is to understand the work of the existing system by studying in detail how the existing system operates. Required data that can be obtained by doing research. When in the planning stage has been held research, its still preliminary survey (preliminary survey), while at the stage of system analysis, research is detailed research (detailed survey).

Systems analysts need to learn what and how operations from existing systems are before trying to analyze the problems, weaknesses and needs of the system users to be able to provide recommendations for their solutions. Some data needs to be collected, using existing information gathering techniques such as:


Is the most effective way, is an exchange of information between the interviewer (systems analyst) and the interviewee (user). There needs to be planning, and there needs to be a specific purpose and consists of questions and answers to questions. Interviews are also a feedback mechanism and a key way to gather field facts and look at existing gaps.


Sampling is the application of certain procedures that are less than 100% of items in a survey to evaluate or estimate some characteristics of the population. Sampling is useful to determine the characteristics or values of all items that will be used to complete. There are 2 kinds of sampling:
  1. Statistical sampling, used to control the risk of sampling in statistical sampling.
  2. Non-statistical sampling, the analyst determines the sampling size and evaluates the results of all samples based on consideration and experience.


Observation has many goals. The analyst can determine what will be done, how it is done, who does it, when it's done, how long it takes, where it's done, and why it's done. Analysts may also participate in the implementation of procedures performed by employees.


Where is system analysis used?

System analysis is the decomposition of a complete information system into its component parts with a view to identify and evaluate the problems, opportunities, constraints and expected needs so that proposed improvements can be proposed.
The analysis phase is performed after the system planning stage and before the system design stage. Can be done in 2 ways:
  1. Structured analysis (structured analysis)
  2. Data flow analysis (data flow analysis)
Structured analysis is:
  1. Methods that attempt to structure the process of determining needs, starting with the existing system documentation.
  2. The process is to organize in a certain way that includes all the relevant details described in the current system.
  3. When relevant details have been obtained, it will facilitate the verification process.
  4. The identified needs will be similar among each analyst and will include the best solutions and strategies for system development opportunities.
  5. Paper-shaped worksheets created for documentation of existing systems and proposed systems are an effective means of communication.
Data flow analysis can be done with the following 4 questions:
  1. What process does the system do?
  2. What data is used in each process?
  3. What data is stored?
  4. Any data entered into the system and removed from the system


How is system analysis used?

In general, the fundamental task of a System Analyst (hereinafter brief Analyst) is to define the needs of users, develop effective solutions, and control the transition period (beginning) of system usage. An analyst needs to understand the career path and the competencies needed to develop effectively. Lately I think to apply a better structure in the application development organization. If divided according to the level, I divide the position of the analyst as follows:
  1. Junior
  2. Associate
  3. Unit Head / Supervisor
  4. Consultant
Junior analysts are generally fresh-graduates from computer / informatics disciplines. As a beginner, junior analysts are responsible as documenter or quality-assurance. His duties poured all his insights into written form and tested the completed system.

The analyst is in charge of preparing Minutes of Meeting documents, Function Specification Documents, User Guide, and others. As a junior, analysts will be given a very detailed explanation by senior analysts. The junior analyst just needs to write it down. The challenge is that other people must be able to understand the contents of the author's mind correctly and completely (correct and complete) without the need to meet directly with the author.

When finished writing, position ourselves as someone else, then read back the writing. Ask, is it like someone else, I can understand the contents of the article?
One of the important things in writing is the message the author wants to convey must be up to the readers. If an article is read by 10 people, then the ten readers should have the same perception of the contents of the text. In finance, this is similar to a Corporate Financial Statement.

The accountant is tasked with keeping a book with certain rules, so that anyone who reads the financial statements has the same perception.

In the context of system analysis, to ensure similarity between authors and readers, analysts need to use certain models, such as BPNN (Busines Process Model and Notation). Each Model has standard notation and rules to ensure a shared perception between the author and the reader.

For example, a senior analyst will define and explain the client's business processes to junior analysts. The junior analyst is in charge of modeling the understanding in the form of UML. This needs to be done with caution because there are two potential errors, namely:
  1. The junior analyst does not understand the problem well, so he misjudged.
  2. The junior analyst understands the problem well, but can not model correctly.
What the analyst needs to do is break down the problem into small parts to make it easy to understand, and to clarify the connectedness between sections.

In understanding the problem, the analyst needs to select the flow that is the reference. For example, the analyst begins an understanding by describing the business process by following the "timeline". The analyst starts by determining who does what process, what input, what output (output). Then proceed to the next process. Anticipate any cases and conditions (ramifications) that may occur. Until finish. If a process is too large, then the analyst needs to create a more detailed sub-process.

This Top-Down approach is an analyst's natural mindset. This is different from the natural mindset of programmers who tend to Bottom-Up. Programmers tend to think like a child who is given a piece of Lego toy. He will take a few pieces and shape them into ships or toy cars. People with a programming talent are able to combine some seemingly unrelated things into a whole / valuable concept and object. This competence is called Conceptual Thinking, which is the ability to understand the underlying problem in a complex business, and to see the pattern of interrelationships that are not apparent.


Conclusion system analysis

System analysis must have sufficient knowledge about the application being analyzed. For business applications, systems analysts must have knowledge of the business systems implemented in the organization. The task that begins by reviewing first the subject matter that has been expressed by management or that has been discovered by system analysts in the planning phase of the system.

After causing the problem to occur, then identify the decision point of the cause of the problem. Decision points indicate a condition that causes something to happen. System analyst when it can be spelled out the first decision points cause, it can be encrypted at the points of the decision, because the basis of identification of the decision point can be used document documents

Flow or flowchart form when owned by the company. Once the decision point causes the problem to be entangled in the water location, the next thing that needs to be locked is the key personnel either directly or indirectly can cause the disaster. Identification of key personnel can be done with the company's document flow chart.

Example analysis system

Examing the sales system in a company how the system works in the sale of goods and analyzes whether the data in the sales correct. Identify problems that occur in the company and provide input and solutions.Can help develop quality and marketing of merchandise .


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