Internet: How does the net works?

Nur Izzah Insyirah Binti Kamal Izat

What is internet? 
Do you really know what is Internet? For your information, Internet is the world’s largest and most widely used network. Over the years, the Internet has become the world’s most extensive which rivals other telephone system in term of reach and range. In over 230 countries around the world, the Internet is a global “network of networks” that uses universal standards to connect millions of different networks with nearly 2.3 billion users. It could link and connect millions of individuals all over the world at any time and any place with just a single click. Thus, the number of its users kept on increasing each day.

Most homes and business companies subscribe to an Internet service provider (ISP) to connect to the Internet. An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization or company that provides its subscribers with the internet access. Besides that, the ISP also providing other services such as the Internet transit, domain name registration, web hosting, Usenet service, and colocation. Among the widely known Internet service providers in United States are AOL, Earthlink, and MSN.

How does it works?
The internet is a telecommunications network that uses cables, telephone lines, wireless connections and satellites to connect computers and other devices to the World Wide Web. These days, most modern computers can connect to the internet as well as the mobile smartphones and some televisions, video game consoles and other devices.

The Internet works through a packet routing network in accordance with the Internet Protocol (IP), the Transport Control Protocol (TCP) and other protocols. A protocol is a set of rules which specifies on how the computers should communicate with other devices over a network. For example, the Transport Control Protocol has a rule that regulates the destination computer to let the source computer know if there was any missing data during the data transfer so that the source computer can re-send the data.

The pros and cons of Internet.
A new “universal” technology platform was created to build new products, services, business models and strategies by the function of the Internet. This same technology platform has internal uses, providing the connectivity to link different systems and networks within the firm. Intranets are the internal corporate networks that are based on Internet technology. Private intranets extended to authorized users outside the organization are called extranets, and firms use such networks to coordinate their activities with other firms for making purchases, collaborating on design, and other interorganizational work. Nowadays, most business firms use Internet technologies which are as both business necessity and a competitive advantage.

The pros of using the internet are that: 
  1. Communications can happen globally and in real time
  2. The availability of information is widely accessible.
Thanks to the Internet, it made us possible to chat with someone who is miles away in real time. It also helps the businesses where global video conferences can be held at the respective whereabouts which cut costs and energy instead of travelling far to meet. Besides that, we can access every information needed through the internet. All it takes is to put a simple keyword search on the search engine and you will be provided with what you want.

Despite the benefit of using the Internet, the negative side of the Internet should not be neglected. The usage of the internet has been known to :

  1. Decrease our personal privacy. 
  2. The Internet can become an addiction 
  3. Elevates the Internet dependency 
The amount of private information being shared on the internet is so broad that the one’s own privacy is at risk. Apart from that, the Internet can become an addiction which is an impulse control disorder. This addiction can make people become preoccupied with the Internet and eventually risking their jobs in real life and lessen the social time connecting with people. In addition, it elevates the Internet dependency which lessen the productivity. For instance, business operation might be interrupted when the Internet system is having a problem.

Should we use the Internet?

In this globalized era, we definitely cannot avoid the usage of Internet. Whether we want it or not, the usage of the Internet is necessary for us to lead a better life. It does not only help connecting people from all over the world but also increase the efficiency and the productivity in terms of business, communication and so on. However, though the Internet has made our lives better, it also has the power to cause destructions. The Internet usage should be under control so we would be benefited but at the same time refrain any negatives impact.

 Information System in Industry 4.0

Nurul Asyiqin Binti Amaludin

The transition in digitalization manufacturing being called Industry 4.0 to represent the fourth industry revolution in manufacturing technologies. The term “Industry 4.0” are originated from a project in the high-tech strategy of the German government. Their objective for this project is to promotes the computerization of manufacturing. The Industry 4.0 strategy for the German governments is the strong customization of products under the conditions to produce highly flexible mass production. This strategy required automation technology which is improved by the introduction of methods of self-optimization, self-configuration, self-diagnosis, cognition and intelligent support of workers in manufacturing industry. 

Here are example of components when looking closely in society and current digital trends in Industry 4.0:
  1. Internet of Things (IoT)
  2. Internet of Things (IoT) platforms also known as one of the digital technologies that contribute in information systems. This platform can communicate over the internet and can complete tasks on their own. For example, in the industry, most of facilities, transportation methods and machines communicate with intelligent things and sensor networks with the machine-to-machine communication (M2M). By this method, it is enables for operation adjust automatically to the current circumstances and availabilities. The IoT can divided into four layers:
    • Component with sensor
    • Connectivity
    • Analysis and evaluation
    • Service
  3. Cloud Computing
  4. Cloud computing is Internet-based computing on-demand availability of computer system resources, especially data storage and computing power, without direct active management by the user. Cloud computing usually used to describe data centers available to many users over the Internet. Clouds may be limited to a single organization (enterprise clouds), but it will be available to many organization (public clouds) or can be a combination of both (hybrid cloud). Cloud computing usually relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale. Cloud providers typically use a “pay-as-you-go” model, which can lead to unexpected operating expenses if administrators are not familiarized with cloud-pricing models. The availability of high-capacity networks, low-cost computers and storage devices as well as the adoption of hardware virtualization, autonomic and utility computing has led to growth in cloud computing.
  5. Big Data
  6. Digitalization is generating the new data in organization from emails over production and customer data to data on the product use. These large and complex data sets are called big data. These growing data sets are difficult to capture, store, analyze and visualize because of the huge quantities, unstructured and no direct relationship. Huge amount of data did not generate any added value yet. Only the logical linking of the different data sources and the structured analysis of the data will create information that help management steer the company and process. This will be able to illustrate changes of information, show the needs of customers and allow to do segmentation of data precisely. Big data also supports the management in decision making and allows automated the process controlling.
Information system requires an efficient and open software with a flexible process control and the development perspective for the future. Therefore, Industry 4.0 connects the production and products with intelligent information and communication systems. The system able to process big amount of data, the use of internet and cloud computing with flexible and intelligent. By this method, the manufacturing processes can be coordinated and become more predictable. Besides, the objective of Industry 4.0 in produce mass-production with effective and efficient will be achieved.

Internet Development: "E-Commerce"

Nurul Syazana Binti Mohd Zamiri (C1G018049)

E-commerce (EC or Electronic commerce) began in 1995 by, one of the first Internet portals that come up with an idea that the internet and the web can also be used as a new medium for sales and advertising.
  1. What Is E-Commerce?
  2. E-commerce refers to the buying or selling of goods and services or transact business by using internet and the web. Simply, as any successful transaction that make over the internet and the without using any paper documents that is what we called as e-commerce. E-commerce offered such advantages which is easier time managing a business and finding products and services, lower operational costs, higher quality of services and  doesn't need much physical space. 

  3. What Can Be Classified As E-Commerce?

    • Online Shopping

    • Internet Banking

    • Electronic Payments

    • Purhasing Tickets Online

    • Online Auctions

  4. What Is E-Commerce?
  5. Since the unique nature of the Internet and the Web, it continuously make e-commerce grown so rapidly. As we know the technologies are much more rich and powerful than past technology like radio, television, and the telephone. Because it is widely used by the people, it often viewed as something that is well accepted by surroundings.

    It might be as the perfect choice to solve the business problems but at the same time there was a problem to switching from selling at a physical location to using online retail. Many consumers might be prefer to direct going on shops because of their personal touch and the relationship customers get to develop with a retail location. They have the access to try the clothes especially beforehand and will make sure the quality of product before purchase in case there is any defect or damage. However, e-commerce eliminates that way that might be a long-term problem if product received got wrong or broken.

    Everything that using e-commerce as the platform of transactions need to complete important detail like name, address, phone number and bank detail. This will eliminate time consuming and lead to easier business transactions, especially involving payment transactions through e-commerce. But at the same time customer also exposed with the risk of security issue as we know that detail such as data or our own personal information is supposed to be keep within ourselves. Customer are could never predict with what will happen in the future regards with the data provided when completing a purchase transaction where they have given a chance to a malicious suspect like a scammer and etc.

    Every single step into e-commerce is highly competitive because the online market has been growing rapidly. A person that have the competitive advantage and using the best strategies of marketing have the major chance to attract customer. That is why seller has to be focus on the services and need to learn more about the strategies to makes them well known at global market.The strategies of content plays a unique role in the world of internet. Interesting and recent content is important for e-commerce, because in the end all their objectives is to be the top ranking search engines. Everyone tries to make searches easy with keywords so that their name pops up easily on the front page of the internet searches.

The Internet or the web with e-commerce are related to each other. What happens if there is a site crash issue? Undoubtedly when the site down the whole service will not be available and you will have to wait a few hours to get the store again online. This is one of the problems where you need to be consider that to wait for the service to get online back as when you talk about e-commerce stores, they face quite a lot of trouble with occasional servers that are causing a lot of issue on the sale.

"Internet Crime" are you aware about this?

Nurhidayu Binti Ahmad (C1G018046)

The development and use of information and communication technology (ICT) has opened opportunities for faster, easier communication and enable information to be transmitted and received quickly. One of the more extensive means of communication is the Internet and electronic mail (e-mail). Besides that, the internet also provides opportunities to the country as it moves to progress as the development of technology.

These opportunities also can be devoted to advancement in the field of development in education, employment opportunities pioneered by society, especially among youths they can use internet as a medium for them to generate income as called “e-commerce”. Not only that, social media is capable of strengthen a distant relationship that lives in a different country.

But people nowadays they are misuse and take benefit on the convenience. The Internet based on the Ethics are the set of moral principles that govern an individual or a group on what is acceptable behavior while using a computer. Computer ethics is a set of moral principles that govern the utilization of computers. Ethical issues arise because of the opportunities in data theft, abuse and so on. This is because the community shares their data and personal information on the internet.

The Internet remains to be a medium that invites creativity and freedom of expression and right of sharing information across borders even as it's becoming a tool of mass surveillance, either from corporate entities. One of the common issues of the computer ethics is violation of copyright issues. Based on the previous study, an article from Raman Mittal Copyright is a set of exclusive rights granted by law to the creators and producers of forms of creative expressions such as musical, literary, artistic and cinematographic works.

The protection of copyright covers a wide collection of human creativity. Under the most important international copyright convention, the Berne Convention, copyright protection covers all "literary and artistic works." This term includes diverse forms of creativity, such as databases, writings, and computer programs that are initially due to the selection or order of their contents, works of fine art, audiovisual works, musical works, including drawings and paintings and photographs. 'Related rights', within the framework of copyright, protect the contributions of others who add value in the presentation of literary and artistic works to the public, like performing artists such as actors, dancers, singers and musicians; the producers of phonograms; and broadcasting organizations.

Lastly is an act that is often done among students, where it is called digital plagiarism. Plagiarism is one of the major forms of academic dishonesty which has always existed in education, including higher education. For example, tasks submitted by students may turn out to be duplicated from fellow friends or could be taken over, in part or whole, from existing issued works, copied from websites, articles and so on. The use of computers and the Internet added to the means that students have at their disposal to commit plagiarism. However, they make it much easier to do and much harder to detect.

DARK WEB: “How Dark Is It?”

Nur Khairunisa Binti Kamalul Arifin (C1G018047)

If you think our internet browser could serve us everything we questionned about, then u should think twice!  The fact is, we only use 20% of the internet and the rest is owned by Dark Web and Deep Web. Ever heard of Dark Web? Just like its name, the web could only be accessed by certain browser and people but if you have the curiosity to try it and 100% noobies, then don’t try to. 


The dark web is a part of the internet that isn't indexed by search engines such as Google and Firefox. It is also can be called as Deeb Web, Darknet, Deebnet, Invisible Web, Undernet or Hiddenweb. You can buy almost everything in here include credit card numbers, all manner of drugs, guns, counterfeit money, stolen subscription credentials, hacked Netflix accounts and software that helps you break into other people’s computers. You can even also hire hackers to attack computers for you.

 To access the dark web, it is quite difficult and tricky but then the internet offered free step by step to sign up the browser.  Bitcoin currency is being used in conducting any illegal transaction and if you also clueless about Bitcoin, it is actually a decentralized digital currency without a central bank or single administrator that can be sent from user to user on the shared bitcoin network without the need for intermediaries. So it basically in form of non-physical money. They use Bitcoin because, sellers and buyers can conceal their identity. A secret currency to prevent sellers and buyers from being tracked.

Dark Web Browser

Accessing the dark web requires the use of an anonymizing browser called Tor that you can easily found on the Google Play or Apple Store. The Tor browser courses your web page requests through a series of intermediary servers worked by large number of volunteers around the globe, rendering your IP address unidentifiable and untraceable for the authorities. Tor works like magic and might amuse you, yet the outcome is an experience that’s like the dark web itself: unpredictable, cant be totally relied on and maddeningly slow.

  • What Can I Counter in Dark Web?
Paedophilia (Child Abuse)
In 2015, Shannon Grant Mc Coole is an admin who has the Dark web page uploading numerous child abuse pictures including an 18 months old baby. He has been jailed for 35 years when he found guilty. The Shannon website has at least one thousand paedophiles all over the world. Shannon, who operates from Australia has tortured 7 children, some of whom were 5 years old and uploaded them on the website. Over fifty thousand child abuse and paedophilia pictures found on Shannon's computer when he was arrested. To become the members, they are required to upload at least 1 child abuse picture if they do not want to kick from the site.
  • Drug Purchasing
There is a website in the Dark Web, which is used solely for drug sale online. This website is known as Silk Road. Silk Road is the largest and most popular website among drug addicts who are glad to buy drugs in the dark web without the intervention of the authorities. The Silk Road website also operates a fake identity card, fake documents, personal information and the most horrible service is to kill people.
  • Hire a killer (Hitman)
Dark web is also a place to hire a self-assassin. Only with 20 thousand dollars, they can direct to kill anyone but excluding some groups which are children under 16 and well-known politicians. Well, at least they have a bit of humanity there. As with the purchase of drugs on Silk Road, the sale and purchase process is done secretly via the Bitcoin money system. For murder killers, they usually take between 2-3 weeks.
  •      Red Room
Who would have thought, there were people who have the gut to pay to see other people being tortured alive. In the dark web, there is a website called Red Room. It acts just like Youtube and Instagram for video sharing which will be broadcast live at a specified time. The instructions and ways of torture will be in accordance with the preference of paying visitors. Where do they find these tortured people? Mostly they were kidnapped from various areas by the Red Room manager and unfortunately became victims and most of the victims on the video are majored by Asian women.

You should ask yourself twice, or maybe thrice. There is quite numerous of review that had being done by worldwide famous youtuber including Pewdiepie. If you look closely on the review that they have made, there is a web that offered selling and purchasing certain belongings of dead person or even weapons such as guns that are being used to kill or harm people to the person that interested in it and in this case is the innocent and curious people. But the thing about this purchasing is the actually have the buyer address and personal information that is quite dangerous to be exposed to the people that accessing the dark web. So better for you to properly study this web before exploring it too much deep, because you can’t be sure what will arrive in your front door. Do it on your own risk.

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